The charged weapon system has a lot of potential, and this first iteration really shows it. However, and of course there has to be a however, I feel that it's currently in a very scary, dangerous spot. Weapons in GRIP already had a very very high power level. A single weapon hit could quite feasibly cause 8 seconds or so of time loss which is, well, huge. The risk with charged weapons - currently at an even higher power level - is of effectively making races into slot machines. There was already a problem with leaders running away with races, but the now-increased ability of the pack to murder each other exacerbates it enormously leading to anyone who breaks free staying free more or less forever. I feel that the power level of charged weapons should be much closer to that of uncharged ones - with the focus being on providing flexibility rather than more raw strength.
Scorpion - One of the biggest offenders IMO, the scorpion literally doubles in strength when charged. Firing two missiles means that a single target isn't safe even with a shield, while with multiple targets in play it can put two of them out of commission with a single firing. It's especially brutal in races with destructible cars, since two scorpions is enough to deal 60% damage to a speedster or mid class car, and 50% to dreadnought. This means that, with a lucky roll of the dice giving you two scorpions, you have the ability to instantly wipe out a racer not driving Tempest (which IMO has become almost entirely unviable on most tracks with the greater focus on aggression really targeting its inability to resist most attacks without having an accident) or Jugg. I think it would be best to drastically reduce the power of the missiles from the charged scorpion - both in blast effect and damage. Ideally this would make it so that you could use a charged scorpion to knock down damaged shields with the first rocket, then still hit the target - or simply to hit multiple targets at once with a lighter effect. Meanwhile uncharged scorpions would remain useful for destroying fresh shields or when you really need to hit a single target. I imagine both variants would be similarly effective overall against single unshielded targets. Perhaps it could be taken further, with three of these much weaker rockets.
Raptor - Probably the most boring charged weapon as of now, it just makes it almost completely impossible to fight against. If you have no shield and someone's behind you with a charged Raptor, welcome to the wall. No exceptions. There's very little visible difference between the charged and uncharged raptor for both the user and the victim, so it's not really spectacular either. I... honestly don't have a good suggestion here - there's not much that can be done to change the function of a minigun without it no longer resembling a minigun. Perhaps a higher-impact cannon? Instead of the rapid fire peppering, you get 4 big punches with a longer range but without enough total damage to kill a shield?
Assassin - Kind of the same deal as the scorpion, but with some weird behaviour. I can't quite tell when it will decide to shoot at both 2nd and 1st, and when it will fire both missiles at 1st. Either way, this is a massive amount of raw power from a single pickup - again, double the impact of the original. What if charging assassins resulted in getting one of those fabled backwards-flying assassins? Rather than heading forwards around the track, it would travel the wrong way - allowing it to bypass shields and potentially getting a shorter flight time, but ending up with a longer flight time if the leader is already within sight.
Ram Raider - This is for me the 'model' charged powerup. Its function is entirely different to the original weapon, being a long range 'sniping' tool rather than a close in defensive one. However, after playing with it in multiplayer - both using it and having it used against me - it's also on way too high a power level. It's not difficult to land hits with, and it applies absolutely massive amounts of force if you aim even remotely close to true. Seems to have a fairly large area of effect too. Its functionality is absolutely spot on, but its power level really needs to be brought down a fair amount. This was one of the more obnoxious weapons to go up against (and most powerful to use) thanks to its combination of immense range, great accuracy and huge impact.
Spearhead - The base version of the spearhead is pretty strong already, with great accuracy and a somewhat inconsistent but potentially very strong effect. Charged spearhead however is crazy good. Not only does it both pierce and destroy shields, but the combination EMP and explosive effect means that you can be thrown off the road with no engine power to recover. It's nice that the EMP stops when you fall below a particular speed threshold, but if that has to kick in then the excessive amount of damage has already been done. I think it would be best if the charged spearhead lost its explosive effect and instead only applied the EMP - but still killed shields. This would mean that an uncharged one may be more useful against a target that's already without shield at a good time, while the charged one is effective as a combo with other weapons and against shielded targets.
Firestorm - this is fine, nerfing the uncharged firestorm is a good move as the old iteration was easily the best powerup in the game and made things into a game of 'throw away everything so I can find more firestorms'. The charged version is much less practical for most situations, but can potentially provide massive time gain. Good dynamic - the charged variant is situational and clunky, so it's not necessarily right to just charge every firestorm you find.
Hydra - cool, but a tad weak. The interface disruption effect is awesome but the usage scenario and basic results are exactly the same as the normal hydra, meaning that this is probably the least effective/worthwhile charged variant. Perhaps it could apply an interface distortion effect to cars that it passes by, similarly to an assassin? This would mean it remains not really worthwhile in situations where a normal hydra would work, but possibly quite handy to fire at targets as they're taking a corner or a tricky section of track.
Disruptor - pretty inoffensive. The teleport forward is quite nice, but can catch you by surprise so there's an element of risk/reward to it. I have no beef with this one.
Something else to consider is that there's no opportunity cost to holding onto charged powerups forever once they're charged. This means that it's almost always right to use any breathing space you come by to charge a ram raider/spearhead/scorpion so that you have it for whenever someone comes near you. Perhaps they should either lose their charge or disappear entirely after 20-30 seconds to discourage 'hoarding' of powerful pickups.